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string class Unit 1: Early ViolinUnit 2: Baroque Musical Period Unit 3: Classical Musical Period Unit 4: Romantic Musical Period Unit 5: 20th Century Musical PeriodUnit 6: Non Traditional

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Cello Class Outline

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Style Form ComposerPieceNotes
1)Medieval Plainchant Sequence
Hildegard of Bingen
Columba Aspexit
12th century
Columba aspexit was written in plainchant: a single melody sung by a soloist or choir (also known as chant). The melody features syllabic, neumatic and melismatic passages. These terms mean instead of each syllable of the text being sung to a single note (syllabic), some syllables call for several notes (neumatic) or many notes per syllable (melismatic). The musical form used in this piece is called a Sequence: a chant of the Mass sung between sections called the Alleluia and the Gospel. In this form, each melodic phrase is generally sung twice, with a slight variation the second time. Columba aspexit's form: AA'BB'CC'. Technique tips: During Hildegard's time, if a stringed instrument such as a rebec or medieval fiddle were to play along with the vocal part of Columba aspexit, the instrumental part would likely have been a drone: one sustained note throughout the entire piece (an open D in this arrangement). Try playing an open D note throughout the piece, using slow, sustained bows and smooth bow changes. When playing the melody, experiment with slurs and bow changes to create a smooth, flowing melody. Although rhythm was not notated during the Medieval period (free or unmeasured rhythm), many musicians sing or play each note approximately the same length. Decide what tempo (speed) you want to play, and choose when and where you feel the need to slightly pause your bow to indicate when you have reached the end of a musical phrase
2)Medieval Dance - Estampie (instrumental)
Repeating sections
Anonymous Sixth Royal Estampie
from Chansonnier du Roy
(13th c. French)
Estampie is a word which means dance, and Sixth Royal Estampie came from one of the oldest surviving examples of medieval instrumental music. Estampies have repeating sections and the two statements of each section differ only in their endings. Some estampies have the same two endings as this piece does with four repeating sections: A+X, A+Y; B+X, B+Y; C+X, C+Y; D+X, D+ Y (A, B, D and D are the different sections, and X and Y are the two different endings). Technique tips: Since Sixth Royal Estampie calls for a lively, dance tempo, you may want to play it in the upper half of your bow. Slurs may make some of the bowing easier, and some of the phrases should begin with an up-bow. Towards the end of the piece, a Bb accidental is used.
3)Renaissance Song
homophonic texture
AA1 B A2A3
King Henry 8th
( 1491-1547)
Helas Madame Helas Madame is found in a collection of secular music used at King Henry VIII, King of England's court. Some scholars have noted that the melody may have originated elsewhere in continental Europe, with King Henry adding the harmony. The musical form of this piece is a song with a homophonic texture (melody with chordal accompaniment) and minor harmony. Technique tips: Play Helas Madame with a lively tempo, and use short strokes to play notes in the upper or lower part of the bow. Use slurs when needed (slur means to play more than one note in the same bow).
4)Renaissance Dance – Jig
Anonymous Kemp’s Jigg
(16th c. English)
Kemp’s Jigg is a popular dance tune from the 16th century and was found in early violin tutors. During this period, the musical form of jig meant a vigorous, up and down dance. Technique tips: Kemp’s Jigg has a strong, two beat pulse in each measure. Use a rollicking dance tempo throughout the piece. Dotted quarter notes, slurs, and short crisp bows with slight separations between the notes will help maintain the momentum of this high-spirited dance.
5)Renaissance Instrumental
Consort music
Lupo, Thomas (1571-1627) Fantasia (c. 1599-1625) Fantasia is an example of instrumental consort music, and this piece was composed by Thomas Lupo, a member of the English royal violin consort from 1591-1628. Fantasia was written for a four-part instrumental consort. The musical form of this piece is a fantasia, an instrumental composition whose form and invention spring "solely from the fantasy and skill of the author who created it." Technique tips: Fantasia includes slurs, ties, accidentals and dotted quarters. Although Lupo's original music indicates the melody should be exchanged between the different instruments in the consort, this arrangement has been simplified to feature the melody in the part you are playing.
6)Baroque Minuet
Binary form: AB
(two parts)
Crome, Robert
c. 1705-1770
Minuet from
The Fiddle New Model’d
(c. 1735)
Minuet was used by Crome for instructional purposes: to show finger position in different keys. He also provided finger placement assistance through fingerboard illustrations. Although some minuets have three parts (ternary form: ABA), this minuet has two parts (binary form: AB). It is also in triple meter (meter refers to the grouping of beats: one-two-three; one-two-three). Technique tips: Use Crome’s illustration of the fingerboard and the photo provided in the Minuett sheet music to determine where to place your fingers on the violin fingerboard for each finger pattern. The finger patterns used in the featured Minuets are the standard finger patterns you’ll need to play music in any key.
7)Baroque Incidental Music
Purcell, Henry
Rondeau from
Aphra Behn's Abdelazar
Rondeau was one of the pieces Purcell composed for the play Abdelazar. During Purcell’s time, theater music was often called incidental music because it was written to supplement a spoken drama and was not part of the actual play. Purcell's title for this movement implies it is in the musical form of a rondeau, a French musical term used during this period to describe a musical composition with a main section or theme which alternates with subsidiary sections or themes (during the Classical music period, the rondeau was expanded to become the musical form Rondo). Another aspect of Purcell's Rondeau is that it has a 3/2 meter, and the rhythmic lively pulse of the music provides it with the feel of a hornpipe dance. During the 16th-18th centuries, composers often used the spirited country dance rhythm of the hornpipe dance for movements in dance suites and incidental theater music. The hornpipe dance is a dance similar to the jig, but with a different meter. The country dance version of the hornpipe generally had a 3/2 meter (other versions of the hornpipe used 2/4 and 4/4 meters). Meter is a term which describes how the beats in each measure are grouped in stressed and unstressed patterns, and a 3/2 meter typically means three half notes are grouped in each measure with a stress on the first beat: ONE-two-three. Technique tips: Purcell's Rondeau is in a rondeau form with the following musical structure: A B C A. As you play this music, listen for differences between the following sections: section A (measures 1-8); section B (measures 9-16); section C (measures 17-24); and section A, returning in measure 25 to the end. The tempo or speed of the music should have the lively rhythmic feel of a hornpipe dance, and you should be able to feel a strong three beat pulse in every measure.
8)Baroque Orchestral Suite
Handel, George Friederich
Hornpipe from
Water Music Suite
Hornpipe was composed by George Friederich Handel and it is one of the pieces in his orchestral suite Water Music. Handel composed this music to provide musical entertainment for King George I and his guests as they traveled along the Thames River in a royal barge procession (the orchestra of 50 musicians was on its own barge). The musical definition of a suite is a collection of pieces, put together in an ordered manner. During the Baroque era, pieces in a suite were often dance forms such as: prelude, allemande, courante, saraband, gigue, bourre, gavotte, and minuet. After the Baroque era, suites often were pieces extracted from a larger work such as The Nutcracker Suite, a compilation of pieces taken from the ballet The Nutcracker. Technique tips: Handel’s Hornpipe has a 3/2 meter and the musical form of the country dance version of the hornpipe. Play the piece at an allegro tempo (a quick, lively and fast tempo), and use contrast when playing the following dynamics: forte (meaning, play loudly with a strong sound); mezzo piano (moderately soft).
9)Baroque Trio Sonata
theme and variations
Marais, Marin

Corelli, Arcangelo

Vivaldi, Antonio
La Folia Medey:
Couplets des Folies
d’Espagne - Marais;
Sonata No. 12, Op.5
- Corelli; Op. 1, No. 12
Trio Sonata – Vivaldi
La Folia Medey is an arrangement of four variations of the La Folia theme, and features the compositions of Marais, Corelli and Vivaldi. A sonata is an instrumental form of music and describes a multi-movement work for an instrument, often with accompaniment. The term has had varied meanings during different music eras, and during the early Baroque period, sonata was an imprecise designation for an independent piece of music with several movements, for a few instruments with a basso continuo accompaniment. The trio sonata was one of the most popular forms of sonatas used during the Baroque period, and the instrumentation generally used in trio sonatas consisted of two violins and continuo. Technique tips: La Folia Medey is a set of variations movements, often called variation sets. The main theme is clearly expressed in the first eight measures of the piece, and is then repeated, ending with a slight variation in the harmony, followed by increasingly complex rhythmic and melodic variations. Use a moderately slow and stately tempo as you begin the piece. The different variations of the theme in this arrangement will require the use of varied violin techniques such as slightly separated notes for Corelli’s Variation 2 (beginning in measure 33); slurred or separate bows for the triplets in Vivaldi’s Variation 3 (beginning in measure 41); and short, fast 16th notes for Corelli’s Variation 4. Variation 4 begins in measure 57, and you may want to play this section using the upper 1/3 of your bow.
10)Baroque Concerto
concerto for two violins
Vivaldi, Antonio
Allegro from Double
Violin Concerto in A
minor, Op. 3 No. 8,
1st movement
Double Violin Concerto in A minor, Op. 3 No. 8 was composed by Vivaldi. He wrote an estimated 500 instrumental concertos, and approximately 40 of these concertos were double concertos (for two solo instruments). Vivaldi was particularly renowned for his contributions to the development of the concerto form. A concerto is an instrumental composition for solo instrument(s), and is often structured in three movements with the sequence fast-slow-fast. The accompaniment for a concerto typically is an orchestra. Prior to Vivaldi, many elements of the concerto were not standardized. Vivaldi helped establish the three movement form of the concerto, as well as inner features of the movements. Technique tips: Although Vivaldi's Op. 3 No. 8 in A minor is a double concerto, in this arrangement, the melody features the primary parts of both solo instruments. The tempo is allegro, meaning use a quick, lively and fast tempo. During fast passages, you may want to try using a separated, slightly articulated bow stroke in the upper third of your bow.
11)Baroque Cello Suite
Bach, J.S.
Prelude from
Cello Suite I in G Major
Prelude from Cello Suite I in G Major was composed by Bach and is part of his Six Suites for Solo Cello. Bach composed this unaccompanied cello solo music in 1720 while he was residing in Cöthen under the patronage of Prince Leopold. Bach's cello suites were not typical for this time period. Prior to the mid-18th century, solo music for cello was not only uncommon, but Baroque music for cellists rarely called for technically demanding skills found in Bach's cello suites such as multiple stops, complex bowing, barriolage, arpeggios, and left hand virtuosity. Technique tips: This arrangement of Bach’s Prelude is in an improvisatory style and calls for numerous string crossings and ends with a quadruple stop. To play the quadruple stop, play the bottom two notes as a chord first, then the top two notes as a chord (it should be noted that the cello arrangement of this piece ends with a triple stop).
12)Baroque Concerto Grosso
1st movement, Allegro
Bach, J.S.
Allegro 1st movement
from Brandenburg
Concerto No. 5
Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 is one of six concertos in the Brandenburg collection, and Bach composed this music over a period of several years while he was the court music director for Prince Leopold of Cöthen (some music scholars suggest that some of the concertos were written even earlier, while Bach worked for the Duke of Weimar). The court orchestra at Cöthen was reknowned for its large size and fine players, and it is likely that Bach wrote this music for Cöthen orchestra performances. Technique Tips: This musical arrangement is taken from the first movement of Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 5. It is in the musical form of a concerto grosso: an instrumental concerto for a small group of soloists called the concertino which play in contrast to the main body of instrumentalists or called the ripieno or tutti. This arrangement features the melody in the violin part for both the concertino and tutti sections. The tempo is marked allegro, a lively and brisk tempo. As you play the rapid sixteenth notes, use short bows in the upper third of your bow.
13)Baroque Mass - Kyrie Cazzati, Maurizio
Kyrie from
Messa a 4 con violini
Kyrie from Messa a 4 con violini was composed by Maurizio Cazzati. As a musical form, a Mass is a sacred vocal form of music used as part of the worship services for the Catholic Church. During the 17th century, the prominent use of violins in Masses primarily took place in messa concertata, Masses composed for festive ceremonial occasions. The excerpt chosen for this piece is taken from Cazzati's Kyrie, one of the sections in his Messa a 4 con violini, and it was a festive ceremonial Mass used for special occasions such as liturgical feasts. As the title indicates, violins were specifically called for to perform this work. Although Cazzati's Kyrie is also written for voice, organ and violone (a large, bowed bass instrument), this arrangement features the melody from all parts. While playing the music, listen for Cazzati's ritornello sections. In Baroque music, a ritornello section is a recurring passage of music which is used in between new sections of music. At times, this Kyrie uses and reworks motives from preceding sections; at other times, Cazzati introduces new thematic material. Cazzati's instrumental music in this piece sounds like spirited dance music, and you may want to use sprightly, lively bowing to play this arrangement of Cazzati's Kyrie. Also notice how the meter shifts from 3/4 at the beginning, to 4/4 at measure 19.
14)Baroque Oratorio
Air and Chorus
Handel, George Frideric
Messiah Medley:
He Shall Feed His
Flock Like a Shepherd
and Hallelujah Chorus
Messiah was composed by George Friederich Handel in 1741 and it is in the musical form of an oratorio. An oratorio is a large musical work, and is often based on a sacred text or religious topic, with soloists, chorus and orchestra. Although many musical elements in an oratorio are similar to those used in an opera, oratorios are generally performed as a concert, and since no costumes, sets or acting are used, they are less costly to produce than an opera. Handel composed the music for Messiah in 24 days, and the oratorio is about 2 ½ hours long. Handel’s Messiah uses the standard Baroque oratorio small forms of arias, duets, recitatives and choruses. Technique Tips: This Messiah Medley is comprised of excerpts from two pieces from Handel’s Messiah: the Air He Shall Feed His Flock Like a Shepherd, No. 20 (air is the English word for aria, and both share the same meaning of a lyrical song for solo voice, with or without instrumental accompaniment); and an excerpt from Hallelujah Chorus, No. 44, the last piece in Part II of Messiah. Use smooth, flowing bows for this slow, lyrical air: He Shall Feed His Flock Like a Shepherd. Handel’s musical directions for this piece are larghetto e piano, meaning play softly and use a broad, large and stately tempo and style. The tempo of the second excerpt, Handel’s Hallelujah Chorus, is allegro, indicating a fast tempo should be used. Handel’s Hallelujah Chorus should be played in a joyful, vigorous manner to capture the rejoicing nature of the text.
15)Baroque Cantata
instrumental sinfonia
1st movement, Arioso
Bach, J.S.
Arioso from
Cantata No. 156
Cantata No. 156 was composed by Bach in 1729, and Arioso is the first movement found in this cantata. The term cantata means "to be sung," and the musical form of a cantata may be described as a sacred or secular vocal work with instrumental accompaniment. Cantatas are often divided into sections such as choruses, solos, recitatives and arias. Technique Tips: Bach’s first movement of Cantata No. 156 is an instrumental sinfonia, a form which Bach often used as a single-movement instrumental prelude or introductory movement to other pieces in a musical work (sinfonia later came to mean a light version of a symphony). The songlike character of this first movement has contributed to instrumental transcriptions of this movement often being titled arioso, a term which means "like an aria" or melodious. Technique Tips: The title of this cantata is Ich steh mit einem Fuss im Grabe, tranlated to mean I stand with one foot in the grave. Arioso serves as a lyrical and peaceful instrumental introduction to the rest of the cantata. The tempo is marked adagio, meaning use a slow, leisurely tempo. As you play the flowing lines of the melody, use slurs and smooth bow changes when needed.
16)Classical Motet Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
Ave Verum Corpus
Ave Verum Corupus is a short, sacred work composed by Mozart in 1791 for the feast of Corpus Christi. The musical form is a motet. A motet is often defined as a vocal piece with a sacred text, musically composed in the style of the period. The musical form of motet has evolved throughout music history. During the 13th-15th centuries, motets were sacred, unaccompanied choral works, often based on a preexisting melody and text. Beginning in the 16th century, the preexisting melody frequently was secular. Technique Tips: Mozart scored Ave Verum Corupus for chorus, strings and continuo and this motet has a homophonic texture (a form of musical texture with a melody and chordal accompaniment). Although the piece is only 45 measures long, the music evokes a simple, yet sublime mood. Mozart indicated the tempo of this piece should be adagio, meaning a slow, leisurely tempo should be used. Utilize smooth, flowing bows to play the peaceful and soaring melody of this lovely motet.
17)Classical Violin concerto
2nd movement, Adagio
Ternary form: A-B-A
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
Violin Concerto No. 3
in G, Adagio 2nd movement
Violin Concerto No. 3 is an example of Mozart’s mastery of the Classical period form of concerto. This concerto is in a three movement structure with the following standard concerto form: 1) A fast first movement in sonata-allegro form (sonata-allegro form consists of an exposition of the theme, development of the theme, and ends with the recapitulation or return of the theme); 2) A slow second movement in ternary form (A-B-A); 3) A fast third movement in a rondo form. Technique Tips: This arrangement of Mozart’s Violin Concerto No. 3 is taken from the second, slow movement of the concerto, and is titled Adagio, indicating a slow, leisurely tempo should be used. This piece features a serene, scalar melody (scalar means to move in the manner of a scale). Use smooth, seamless bows to play the flowing, lyrical melody of this exquisite piece. Bowing techniques and musical elements used to ornament and enhance the beauty of the melody include slurs, triplets, accidentals, trills and dynamic contrast.
& Romantic
String quartet
2nd movement, Andante
Schubert, Franz
String Quartet No. 13
in A minor, Op. 29
Andante 2nd movement
String Quartet No. 13 in A minor was composed by Schubert in 1824. Although Schubert has been included in this Classical music section for chronological reasons, like Beethoven, Schubert was a composer who bridged the transition between the Classical and Romantic periods. Many music historians regard Schubert as an early Romantic composer due to his use of Romantic compositional techniques such as expanding Classical genres using harmonic color, highly expressive, beautiful melodies and innovative scoring. Technique Tips: This piece is an arrangement of the second movement from Schubert’s String Quartet No. 13 in A minor, Andante. The tempo for this arrangement is andante, meaning, play the piece with a moderately slow tempo (andante is often considered to be a walking speed). Slurs are used throughout the flowing melody of this piece, and instances where slurs occur with dots over or under the notes indicate a slight separation should be used between the notes (the terms dotted slurs or slurred staccato are often used to describe this technique). Although the dynamics of this piece are predominantly soft (this movement begins with the designation mp, an abbreviation for mezzo piano which means moderately soft), dynamic contrast is found in sections with crescendo and decrescendo markings. Crescendo or cresc. means to gradually become louder, and diminuendo (dim.) or decrescendo ( decresc. or decr.), means to gradually become softer. The piece ends with a fermata sign over the last note. A fermata indicates the note should be held and prolonged at the discretion of the performer or conductor (fermatas are also called a "hold" or the nickname "bird's eye").
19)Classical String quartet
2nd movement
Theme and Variations
Haydn, Franz Joseph
Emperor Quartet in C major, Op. 76, No. 3.
Andante, 2nd movement
Haydn's Quartet in C major, Op. 76, No. 3 is known as the Emperor Quartet due to the fact that Haydn based the melody in the second movement on the Austrian Emperor's Hymn, a piece which Haydn composed at the request of government officials. Technique Tips: this piece is an arrangement of the second movement, Andante, from Haydn's Emperor Quartet. This movement is in the small form of theme and variations. In this arrangement, the theme of the Emperor's Hymn is stated in the first 20 measures of this piece, and then one, simplified variation of the theme is presented (in Haydn's full score of this movement, four variations of the theme are presented). The tempo of this piece is poco adagio cantabile, meaning it should be played with a singing style of playing, and a rather slow and leisurely tempo. Since this melody was composed in honor of the Emperor (and was also used as Austria's national anthem), play the melody in a flowing, majestic and singing manner.
20)Classical Symphony – 2nd mvt
Theme and Variations
Haydn, Franz Joseph
Surprise Symphony
No. 94, 2nd mvt.
Symphony No. 94, also known as the Surprise Symphony, was composed by Haydn in 1791. During the Classical Period, genres (large forms) such as symphonies, string quartets, sonatas and concertos were usually structured in multi-movement plans such as:
Concerto (three movements) String quartet and trio (three or four movements) Sonata (for solo instruments or solo instrument with piano accompaniment—three or four movements) Symphony (four movements)
Haydn used a four movement structure in his symphonies, and the inner structure of each of these movements typically used the following standardized small forms:
Typical Symphony Structure—4 movements 1st movement: Fast. Sonata-Allegro design. 2nd movement: Slow. Theme and variations, Sonata-Allegro, Rondo or Through composed 3rd movement: A dance form, such as Minuet and Trio or Scherzo (usually in triple meter). 4th movement: Fast. Rondo or Sonata-Allegro design
The second movement of Haydn's Surprise Symphony uses the musical form of a Theme and Variations and is well known for its sudden fortissimo (very loud) chord at the end of a very quiet (pianissimo) section. Technique Tips: This arrangement begins with the tempo marking andante, indicating a moderately slow tempo should be used. First and second endings are also found in this movement, and these endings indicate the performer should play the first ending the first time through the music, and then return to the beginning of the piece. When playing through the music for a second time, the first ending should be skipped over, and the second ending should be played. This movement begins softly, with the dynamic marking of p (piano meaning play softly or quietly). Another dynamic marking is found at the beginning of the piece: pp, and it is placed in parentheses next to the p, piano marking. This pp in parentheses indicates when the music is played through the second time, it should be played pianissimo (pp), meaning very softly. Haydn used this second pp dynamic marking to heighten the "surprise" of the note in measure 9 which has the dynamic marking fortissimo (ff) which means the music should be played very loud. An accent is also placed over the note in measure 9, indicated by the sign >, and this means the note should be played forcefully. Dots are also placed over some of the notes in this piece, indicating a light, crisp, slightly separated bow stroke should be used. You may want to experiment with the bowing for these sections, and decide for yourself if you want to use an on-the-string stroke such as martelé or staccato, or an off-the-string bow stroke such as spiccato. Beginning in measure 10, a new theme with a melody featuring slurs is presented, and a variation of the main theme returns in measure 18 to the end.
& Romantic
1st and 2nd movements
Program music
Beethoven, Ludwig van
Pastoral Symphony No. 6
1st and 2nd movements
Symphony No. 6 was composed by Beethoven in 1802, and he titled it Pastoral Symphony. Scholars often describe Beethoven as a composer who bridged the Classical and Romantic style periods, because he extended the Viennese Classical style of composers such as Mozart and Haydn, and expanded it in new directions, ushering in the Romantic period. Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony is an example of program music: instrumental music which represents extra-musical concepts such as emotions, scenes or events through the music, not through words (another name for program music is descriptive music). Beethoven's musical score includes descriptive phrases for each of the five movements of his Pastoral Symphony. Technique Tips: This piece is an excerpt from the first and second movements. Some of the instrumental techniques and musical elements found in this arrangement are slurs and meter changes. The first movement, "The awakening of joyful feelings upon arriving in the country," features a bright, lively melody. The second movement, "Scene by the brook" begins in measure 38, and has a 6/4 meter with a strong, triple pulse which depicts the sound of a flowing brook (ONE-two-three-FOUR-five-six). When you reach measures 88-89, note that although these notes are tied, a bow change is indicated (this is done so you'll end the piece on a down-bow). Try to change your bow as smoothly as possible so the notes sound like one, sustained note throughout the bow change.
22)Romantic Folk tune arrangement Brahms, Johannes
Hungarian Dance No. 5
Hungarian Dance No. 5 was created by Brahms in 1868, and it was part of a set of 21 dances based on Hungarian folk tunes. The lively rhythm and pleasing melody made them very popular, particularly with amateur musicians who enjoyed playing music in their homes. Technique Tips: This arrangement of Hungarian Dance No. 5 features tempo changes such as rubato and ritardando (abbreviated as rit.). Rubato is an Italian term that means "robbed," and it refers to a temporary robbing of time by either slowing or speeding the tempo or rhythmic value of notes in a passage of music. Ritardando means to gradually become slower and slower. This piece is a dance, and the dots over some of the notes indicate that a spiccato bow stroke should be used. Spiccato is an off-the-string, controlled bouncing bow stroke that produces a crisp sound and very short notes. Other bowing indications include the tenuto sign, a line drawn over or under the note: _ to indicate the note should be played sustained or broadly, and held for its whole value. This piece also has sections with repeat signs, a first and second ending, and the sign D.C. al Coda (D.C. is an abbreviation for da capo, and means "from the beginning," and coda means "tail," and refers to a concluding section of a piece). A double bar with two dots is a repeat marking, and indicates the music in between the repeat signs should be repeated. First and second endings should be played as follows: play the first ending the first time through the music, and then return to the beginning of the piece. When playing through the music for a second time, the first ending should be skipped over, and the second ending should be played. Towards the end of the piece, in measure 50, there is a repeat sign and a D.C. al Coda marking with the added notation, 2x. This means the D.C. al Coda marking should not be followed until you are playing through the music for the second time (after you've repeated the section). This should be played as follows: when you reach the repeat sign in measure 50, return to the repeat marking in measure 43, and repeat the section. When you reach the D.C. al Coda marking in measure 50 for the second time, go back to the beginning of the piece, play to the Coda sign, then jump to the Coda section at the end to finish the piece (beginning in measure 51). A quadruple stop, a chord using four strings, is found in the last measure of this arrangement. To play the quadruple stop, let your bow balance on the lower two strings to play the lower double stop first, then quickly roll to the upper two strings and play the upper double stop. If this is too difficult, simply play the top note of the chord.
23)Romantic Symphonic poem Smetana, Bedrich
The Moldau
from Má Vlast
The Moldau is part of Smetana's Má Vlast, a cycle of six symphonic poems. A symphonic poem (also known as a tone poem) is a programmatic orchestral work that expresses extra musical ideas such as emotions, scenes or events through the music. Má Vlast is an example of nationalistic music and program music, and represents Smetana's deep love for his country. Technique Tips: this arrangement is an excerpt from The Moldau, and highlights programmatic features used by Smetana to depict the Moldau River, the longest river in Czechoslovakia. In the first two measures, the rippling sounds in the piano part evoke the sound of the source of the Moldau: two rippling springs. The rippling piano part continues throughout the piece, unifying the composition with the sound of water in motion, and the primary melody begins in measure 3. This main theme has a broad, majestic and flowing sound, and represents the Moldau River as it travels through Czechoslovakia. The tempo marking at the beginning of this piece is allegro comodo non agitato, meaning the piece should be played in a fast, yet leisurely tempo that is neither too fast nor too slow, and should be performed in a manner that is not agitated or restless (allegro means lively and fast; comodo is a comfortable, leisurely tempo; and non agitato means not agitated). As you play this piece, use smooth bows, and when tenuto markings: _ are used with slurred notes, make sure you slightly pause between the notes to slightly separate them (as in measures 4, 7, 8, 9, etc.). Although no dynamic markings are provided in this arrangement, you may want to experiment with different ways to musically express the mood and imagery of this piece. Note that in measure 26, a D# accidental is added to the melody in this measure only. The very last note of the piece is held for 3 measures while the bass line of the piano plays the rippling sound of the stream one final time. As you play this last note, use a down-bow, and although no additional bow markings are indicated, if you're running out of bow, try to imperceptibly and smoothly change your bow as often as needed, then end with a down bow.
24)Romantic Folk song arrangement Edward Grieg
Halling from 25
Norwegian Folksongs and Dances
Halling is one of the pieces found in Edward Grieg's first set of Norwegian folksong arrangements: 25 Norwegian Folksongs and Dances, Op. 17. Halling is the name of a Norwegian folk dance, and it is usually in a fast, duple time (2/4 or 6/8). In Norway, halling dance music is played on both the Hardanger fiddle and the violin. As a dance, the halling is danced as a solo man’s dance to display strength and agility, and the dancer either kicks his foot high towards the ceiling, or kicks down a hat that is held up high. Technique Tips: The tempo of this arrangement of Halling is moderately fast (moderato), and the music should be played in a lively, vigorous manner. Some of the notes have dots over or under them, indicating they should be played with short, crisp bows. The last note of the piece is a triple stop, and to execute this bow stroke, play the bottom two notes of the chord first, then the top two notes of the chord.
25)Romantic Waltz Johann Strauss II
Emperor Waltz, Op. 437
Emperor Waltz was composed by Johann Strauss II in honor of the Austrian Emperor, Franz Josef's visit to the German Kaiser, Wilhelm II. Johann conducted the premier of this piece at the newly-opened Berlin Königsbau concert hall in 1889. The waltz was the most popular ballroom dance form in the 19th century, and the Strauss family played a prominent role in Vienna's social scene, composing and performing waltzes and other dance music for dance establishments and social events. Johann Strauss II became the most famous member of the musical Strauss family, and he was awarded the nickname "The Waltz King." The waltz form, a dance with a triple meter, originated in rural dance music, and Johann Strauss I and a fellow-musician, Joseph Lanner, expanded and formalized this rural dance form. Johann Strauss II took the waltz form begun by his father and Lanner a step further, and added new melodic, harmonic and structural dimensions. Johann Strauss II eventually elevated the waltz form beyond the ballroom and the realm of popular music, to the level of art music suitable for the concert hall. The term Viennese Waltz is sometimes used to describe the waltzes which emerged from Vienna during this time, a term which not only refers to the fully developed form of the waltz, but also to stylized elements in performing the waltz such as a subtle use of rubato and a slight anticipation of the second beat. Technique Tips: This arrangement of the Emperor Waltz has the flowing triple meter of a waltz, with a strong ONE-two-three pulse in each measure. Use smooth, full bows to maintain the momentum and rhythm of this resplendent waltz.
26)Romantic Chamber Music
solo violin
with accompaniment
Viardot, Pauline Vieille Chanson from
6 Morceaux pour
Piano et Violon
Vieille Chanson was composed by Pauline Viardot a French singer, composer and voice teacher. Viardot followed the Parisian tradition of having a music salon, and she regularly held informal salon concerts in her home. The purpose of a music salon was not only to offer entertainment, but also to feature musical works by promising composers and performers. Viardot composed a set of six violin and piano pieces entitled 6 Morceaux pour Piano et Violon, and this work was first published in Paris in the 1890s. Vieille Chanson is the fifth piece in this collection of lyrical, romantic pieces for violin and piano. Technique Tips: Vieille Chanson is in a minor key, and Viardot's expressive melody and dynamic changes add to the emotional quality of this lovely piece. The intimate nature of this composition makes it likely that it was one of the pieces performed in Viardot's music salon in her home.
27)Romantic Violin Concerto
slow movement (2nd)

Three movements:
Fast – Slow - Fast
Mendelssohn, Felix
Violin Concerto in E Minor,
op. 64, Andante 2nd mvt.
Violin Concerto in E Minor was composed by Felix Mendelssohn in 1844. This piece has a typical concerto form of three movements: fast—slow—fast. One of the unique features of this piece is that Mendelssohn indicated it should be played without pause, thus creating the effect of a seamless, unified musical work (concertos generally have a slight pause between movements). Technique Tips: This arrangement is based on the second movement of Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto in E minor. The heading of this movement is Andante, a tempo that means a moderately slow tempo (often considered to be a walking speed). The melody has an intimate, songlike feel, and like many slow movements of concertos, this movement is structured in an A-B-A form (theme A is found in measures 1-18; theme B in measures 19-26; and theme A returns in measures 27-end).
28)Romantic Cello Concerto Dvorak, Antonin
Cello Concerto in B minor,
op. 104, Allegro & Adagio
excerpts from mvts. I & II
Cello Concerto in B minor was composed by Antonin Dvořák in 1895, and it was premiered in London in 1896, with Dvorak conducting. It was an enormous success at its premiere, and to this day, it remains one of the most popular cello concertos in cello literature. Dvořák's masterful use of orchestration, his exquisite melodies, and his ability to write technically brilliant and virtuosic passages for the soloist are just a few of the features that have made this concerto a classic work of art. Technique Tips: Dvořák's Cello Concerto in B minor has three movements, and this arrangement is an excerpt from the first and second movements, Allegro and Andante. It begins with the first movement's main theme (measures 1-19), followed by two excerpts from the second, slow movement. This arrangement begins with an up-bow, and slurs are used to enhance the lyrical, soaring melody of the theme from Dvorak's first movement of his cello concerto. The tempo for this movement is allegro, and Dvorak provided the additional musical direction dolce e molto sostenuto, meaning play this section sweetly and with a sustained sound.
29)Romantic String Quartet – 3rd
movement, Nocturne
Borodin, Alexander
Nocturne 3rd mvt. from
String Quartet No. 2 in D
Major (1881)
String Quartet No. 2 in D major was completed by Aleksandr Porfir'yevich Borodin in 1881. Borodin dedicated it to his wife, and it was written as a remembrance of their courtship in Heidelburg. It has four movements, and this piece is an arrangement of the third movement, Nocturne. Nocturne is both lyrical and rhapsodic with a sweet and expressive melody. A string orchestra arrangement of Borodin's Nocturne is a popular part of orchestral literature today. Technique Tips: Borodin's expressive markings at the beginning of Nocturne are cantabile ed espressivo, meaning play expressively in a singing, vocal style. Use smooth, flowing bows to achieve this singing style of playing. You also may want to pay attention to the eighth note rests in the piece, and play them as if they were breaths taken by a singer (use slight pauses to create this effect).
30)Romantic Chamber Music
solo with accompaniment
Glazunov, Aleksandr
Elégie for Viola and
Piano in Gm, Op. 44
Elégie for Viola and Piano in G minor, Op. 44 was composed by Aleksandr Glazunov in 1893. It is in the key of G minor. Minor keys are sometimes used by composers to evoke a slightly sad feeling, and Glazunov's use of a minor key adds to the sweet sadness of his poignant melody. The form of this piece is an elegy, and this term is used to describe a poem or instrumental piece that laments the loss of someone who has died. Technique Tips: the musical direction dolce is placed at the beginning of the piece, meaning play the piece sweetly. The melody begins on an upbeat (start with an up-bow). The tempo of this piece is allegretto, indicating a moderately fast tempo should be used, and the meter is in 9/8. A 9/8 meter means there are nine eighth notes in each measure, and the eighth notes are grouped into a strong triple pulse in each measure (ONE-two-three, FOUR-five-six, SEVEN-eight-nine).
31)Romantic Sonata - 2nd mvt.
Vieuxtemps, Henri
Sonata in Bb for Viola &
Piano, Op. 36, 2nd mvt.,
Barcarolla (1863)
Viola Sonata in Bb, Op.36 was composed by Henry Vieuxtemps in 1863. Technique Tips: this sonata has a lush Romantic sound, and the second movement, Barcarolla, has an exquisite, mournful melody. It is written in a minor key, and the musical directions at the beginning of the piece indicate it should be played con melancholia, meaning sadly.
32)Romantic Song Gounod, Charles-Francois
Bach, J.S. (1685-1760)
Ave Maria from a theme
by J.S. Bach (1859)
Ave Maria from a theme by J.S. Bach was created by Charles-François Gounod (1818-1893), a French composer. Gounod's musical setting of Ave Maria is based on the First Prelude in C major from Book I of the Well-Tempered Clavier (BWV 846) by Johann Sebastian Bach. Gounod composed a melody (a descant), and superimposed it on Bach's C major prelude. Although the text Ave Maria (a Latin prayer used by the Catholic Church), is often used with this piece, one of the first texts which Gounod used with his melody, was a poem by the French poet Lamartine, set by Gounod to this music in 1852. It wasn't until 1859 that Gounod applied the Ave Maria text to his music. Other words have been adapted to this melody, but the text of Ave Maria is one of the most popular. This piece is sometimes called Ave Maria by Bach-Gounod because of the contributions of both Bach and Gounod in creating this lovely work. Technique Tips: Gounod's lyrical melody is in a flowing, sustained line. Use smooth bows, slur when needed, and carefully phrase the music. Note the use of accents in measure 32. An accent is indicated by the sign > (placed over or under a note) and means the note should be emphasized by adding pressure with the bow. This effect is used in measure 32 to express passion and emotion.
33)Romantic Chamber Music
solo with piano
Faure, Gabriel
Sicilienne Op. 78
for cello & piano
Sicilienne, Op.78 for cello and piano, was composed by Gabriel Fauré. Fauré was considered a transitional composer, one who blended the emotion and expressiveness of Romanticism with the experimental avant-garde of the 20th century in his own unique language. Fauré originally composed the piece Sicilienne as part of incidental music he wrote in 1893 for the French playwright Molière's play Le bourgeois gentilhomme. In 1898, Fauré reused Sicilienne when he composed incidental music for the English translation version of Maeterlinck's play Pelléas et Mélisande. Fauré later extracted four of the seventeen pieces written for Pelléas et Mélisande, and formed an orchestral suite for concerts, Pelléas et Mélisande Suite, Op. 80 (Sicilienne was one of the pieces Fauré selected for this orchestral suite). Fauré's Sicilienne is the most popular piece from the Pelléas et Mélisande Suite, and it is frequently played by major orchestras today. In 1898, Fauré also scored Sicilienne for cello and piano, and this version is catalogued as Op. 78. Technique Tips: this piece is an arrangement of Fauré's Sicilienne, Op.78 for cello and piano. 17th and 18th century composers frequently used the sicilienne, a dance, as the musical form for instrumental movements. In the 19th and 20th centuries, composers such as Fauré used the sicilienne to musically convey melancholy emotions or pastoral scenes. In this musical form, an upbeat was frequently used to begin melodic phrases. Although siciliennes generally utilize a slow 6/8 or 12/8 meter, this simplified arrangement of Fauré's piece has a 3/4 meter (the duration of the notes was doubled to make the music easier to sight-read). This piece also has numerous accidentals. An accidental is a sign such as a flat, sharp or natural indicating a momentary departure from the key signature. Accidentals apply to the note immediately following the symbol, and remain in effect throughout the measure in which it appears. In measures 43 and 44, the accidentals are enclosed with parentheses (a Bb in measure 43, and an Eb in measure 44). These are called courtesy accidentals, and are sometimes used in sheet music to remind the musician of the correct pitch after accidentals have been used in prior measures.
34)Romantic Opera - intermezzo Massenet, Jules
Meditation from Thaïs
Meditation from Thaïs was composed by Jules Massenet, one of the most prominent French composers of opera in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Thaïs was one of Massenet’s most popular operas. The piece Meditation, is a dramatic interlude in the middle of the second act of Massenet's opera. The Italian term for interlude is intermezzo, a short musical piece often heard between acts of a play or opera. During this interlude, when the curtains close, Meditation is played by a solo violin with orchestral accompaniment. The lyrical, expressive melody of this piece symbolizes the inner struggle of Thaïs as she meditates and reflects upon the direction of her life. As the piece progresses, the music's dramatic tension and soaring melody depict a spiritual awakening as Thaïs decides to change her ways. Meditation has also become extremely popular as a solo musical number, and is often used as an encore number by concert violinists. Technique Tips: Massenet used several musical terms to enhance the expressive performance of this piece. At the beginning of Meditation, Massenet used the musical expression andante religioso, meaning play in a moderately slow and devotional or religious manner. Molto sostenuto is also indicated at the beginning of the piece, meaning play with a very sustained sound. Tempo variations are used throughout the piece such as rall. (rallentando), indicating gradually become slower and slower; a tempo, meaning return to the original tempo; and tempo variations such as a tempo piu mosso, indicating that a slightly more rapid version of the original tempo should be used. In measure 23, Massenet used the term poco a poco appassionato, meaning little by little, play with passion and intense feeling. He reused a variation of this term beginning in measure 30 with the expressive marking poco piu appassionato, meaning play slightly more passionately and with intense emotion or feeling. Beginning in measure 32, Massenet's expressive marking, piu mosso agitato, means play a little faster and in a slightly agitated manner. In this section, sforzando markings are also found. Sforzando means forced or accented, and is usually attached to a single note or chord. It generally indicates the note should be played loudly with a sudden, accented emphasis, and is indicated by the marking: sfz. Other musical markings in the score include calmato, meaning play calmly. Notice the dynamic markings throughout the piece, and as you follow them, see if they assist you in interpreting the piece musically. Some of these terms include cresc., an abbreviation for crescendo which means gradually become louder, and dim. or diminuendo, a term which means gradually become softer. When there are tenuto markings _ such as in measures 30-31 or parts of measures 35-36, try to use a full bow and a singing tone. There are many ways to musically express yourself as you play this piece, and you may want to experiment with the balance you like best as you play Massenet's beautiful piece, Meditation.
35)Romantic Opera - Aria Bizet, Georges
Habanera from Carmen
The opera Carmen was composed by Georges Bizet, in 1874, and Carmen’s Habanera aria is one of his most popular arias. An aria is an elaborate vocal solo with instrumental accompaniment, used in genres such as an opera, oratorio or cantatas. “L’amour est un oiseau rebelle” (“Love is a rebellious bird”), is the entrance aria sung by Carmen and it is commonly referred to as the Habanera, a term that refers to a style of Afro-Cuban dance music with a distinct rhythm. Bizet based Habanera on a Spanish song called El arreglito. Bizet thought El arreglito was a Spanish folk song, and when he learned it actually had been composed by the Spanish composer Sebastián Yradier, Bizet gave Yradier credit in the score. Technique Tips: The Afro-Cuban habanera rhythm plays a prominent part in Bizet's Habanera. Try to capture the lively habanera rhythm in your playing. When you see slurred notes with a dot over or under them, this indicates slurred, martelé bowing should be used (another name for this bowing technique is slurred staccato). Martelé is a French term meaning hammered. Each note is percussive, and commences with a sharp accent or "pinch" at the beginning of the note, followed by a quick release. To achieve this effect, before you set your bow in motion, apply a "pinch" or "bite" for articulation. There also are tenuto signs, a line drawn over or under the note __ to indicate the note should be played in a sustained or broad manner and held for its whole value. Make sure that your smooth, tenuto triplet bow strokes clearly contrast with the pinch of the martelé bowing. Although most pieces end with a down-bow, this arrangement ends with an up-bow flourish. You may want to experiment with ending the piece with a down-bow, then try using an up-bow, and decide for yourself which bowing you prefer.
36)Romantic Orchestral Suite Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilyich
Dance of the Reed Flutes
from the Nutcracker Suite
The Nutcracker Suite was composed by Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, a prominent Russian composer, in 1892. The Nutcracker is one of Tchaikovsky’s best known musical compositions for ballet. Prior to the ballet's premier, Tchaikovsky selected eight of The Nutcracker pieces and compiled them into an orchestral suite designed for concert performance. The Nutcracker Suite, Op. 71a, was first performed in March, 1892 in St. Petersburg and was an immediate success (the ballet premiered later in December, 1892). Technique Tips: This piece is an excerpt from The Nutcracker Suite's Dance of the Reed Flutes. Tchaikovsky titled this piece Dance of the Mirlitons (mirliton is a French term meaning a toy reed flute with a kazoo-like sound). This arrangement includes dots over or under the notes, indicating that the bow stroke spiccato, an off-the-string, controlled bouncing bow stroke should be used. Experiment with which section of your bow you prefer to use to produce the light, crisp sound of spiccato. A slight slowing down (poco ritard) is indicated in measure 8, then the term a tempo is used to indicate a return to the regular tempo in measure 9. D.C. al Coda is also marked in the score. This means, when you reach the D.C. al Coda marking, go back to the beginning of the piece, play to the Coda sign, then jump to the Coda section to finish the piece. Grace notes are also found in the score. Grace notes are used to ornament the notes, and indicate the musician should quickly play the grace note, then the note to which it is attached (the grace note is not part of the rhythmic value).
37)20th Century-
Orchestral suite
Stravinsky, Igor
Overture (Sinfonia) from
Pulcinella Suite (1922)
Overture by Igor Stravinsky is the first movement of his Pulcinella Suite. An overture is an orchestral piece at the beginning of an opera, suite, play, oratorio, or other musical composition. Stravinsky composed the music for Pulcinella, a ballet, in 1919-20. Stravinsky was asked to compose a ballet using music and dance traditions from the past, based on the music of an eighteenth century composer named Giovanni Battista Pergolesi. Stravinsky's finished work, music for the ballet Pulcinella, was composed in a Neo-Classic style. Neoclassicism may be defined as a 20th century compositional style which utilizes styles and forms of pre-Romantic music, especially those by composers from the eighteenth century such as Haydn, Bach, and Mozart. Instead of simply reorchestrating the Pergolesi pieces, Stravinsky reshaped and recreated the music in a style uniquely his own. He scored it for a chamber orchestra of 33 players (comparable to the small size of orchestras used during the Classical period), and intertwined the existing melodies and bass lines with modern harmonies, rhythmic modifications (such as off-beat accents), and creative orchestration. His insertion of slight dissonance into the harmonies gave it an ironic touch. Stravinsky later extracted eleven movements from Pulcinella and arranged them as a concert suite (synonymous with orchestral suite). The resulting work, Suite from Pulcinella, was first performed in Boston in 1922, and was an immediate success. Suite from Pulcinella continues to be widely performed by major orchestras today. Since the time that Stravinsky composed Pulcinella, musicologists have determined that out of the 21 movements in Pulcinella once attributed to the music of Pergolesi, only nine of these pieces were actually composed by Pergolesi. For example, Stravinsky's Overture to Pulcinella was once thought to have been based on Pergolesi's Sonata No. 1 in G from Twelve Sonatas for Two Violins and a Bass. Scholars have now determined that this instrumental music was actually composed by a mid-18th century Italian composer and violinist named Dominico Gallo, therefore Stravinsky's Pulcinella Overture was based on the first movement from Gallo's Sonata No. 1 in G, a trio sonata. Technique Tips: This arrangement of the Overture (Sinfonia) from Pulcinella is based on Stravinsky's 1920, London publication of his vocal score: Pulcinella Ballet in One Act for three solo voices. If you would like to see and hear for yourself some of the ways Stravinsky reshaped Gallo's original work, an arrangement is also provided of Domenico Gallo's first movement from his Sonata No. 1 in G Major. Although there are very few differences between the melodies of the two pieces (Stravinsky made minimal changes to Gallo's melody), see if you can tell the differences between these two arrangements as you play the melody along with the piano accompaniment or recording of each piece. Some of the variations Stravinsky used to change the feel of Gallo's original trio sonata included minor changes in the rhythm and meter, and slight dissonances in the harmony.
38)20th Century-
Trio Sonata Gallo, Domenico
Moderato from Sonata No. 1
in G Major, 1st mvt.
Gallo's Sonata No. 1 in G. See above.
39)20th Century Quartet
2nd movement, Scherzo
Ravel, Maurice
String Quartet in F Major,
Assez Vif 2nd mvt.
String Quartet in F Major was composed by Maurice Ravel, a French composer, in 1903. Ravel's Quartet in F demonstrates his skillful ability to use classical form and structure to present unified melodies and themes, complex rhythmic patterns, and a wide range of tone colors and textures. Technique Tips: The excerpt selected for this piece is an arrangement of Ravel's second movement from his Quartet in F, Assez Vif (assez vif is French for "rather fast"). A few of the features in this movement include pizzicato, tremolo, key changes, and triplets. Although Ravel did use fingered tremolo in the second movement of his quartet, this arrangement has been simplified and only uses unmeasured bowed tremolo. To execute this bow stroke, use short, unaccented bow strokes in the upper third of your bow, and let your wrist be very flexible as you play the notes as fast as possible. The title of this piece indicates that the music should be played "rather fast" (assez vif), and it should also be played very rhythmically. The small musical form that Ravel used for this movement is a scherzo. The term scherzo literally means "joke." As a small form in music, scherzos were typically used as the second or third movement of a symphony or quartet (in place of the minuet), and often were in a quick triple meter with a vigorous rhythm and a sharply contrasting harmony. Ravel's Assez vif features these characteristics.
40)20th Century Chamber music
solo with piano
Webern, Anton
Opus 7, 4 Pieces for
Violin & Piano, Piece 1,
Sehr langsam (1910)
Four Pieces for Violin and Piano, Op. 7 was composed in 1910 by Anton Webern, an Austrian composer and conductor. Webern favored music which was the opposite of the grandiose, lush sounds of Romanticism. He began composing atonal music which was abstract, highly structured, and extremely concentrated and brief. Webern felt that each individual note of a piece was important, and he used notes sparingly. Music which uses brevity and is extremely concentrated is often called aphoristic, and the term aphoristic is frequently applied to Webern's music. Technique Tips: Webern used an aphoristic style of composition in his Opus 7 Four Pieces for Violin and Piano, and the music is highly condensed and brief. It is an atonal piece, and Webern utilized an unusual palette of sounds and timbres using various instrumental effects. This arrangement is based on Webern's Op. 7, Piece No. 1, entitled Sehr langsam. Webern's score indicates it should be played very slowly (in German, sehr langsam means "very slowly"), with a mute (mit dämpfer in German). Mutes are small clamps of wood, metal, rubber, leather or plastic, which fit onto the bridge and produce a softer, muted sound with a veiled quality. This piece begins with a stopped harmonic (also known as an artificial harmonic). To play the first note of the piece, press your first finger down firmly on the D string for the note Eb (a low 1st finger), then lightly touch your fourth finger on the D string for the note Ab (a low fourth finger). This should produce a harmonic two octaves above the stopped note, with a light, silvery sound. Webern's musical directions also call for col legno beginning in measure 5. Col legno is a term which means the bow should strike the string with the bow stick instead of the bow hair. To do this, turn your bow upside down so the wood of the bow stick is facing the strings, and gently let the stick of your bow bounce on the strings. This should produce a brittle, dry sound. As a side note, some professional string players do not like using their expensive bows to produce this sound, and when this effect is called for in extended passages in orchestral music, they use inexpensive bows. The piece ends with pizzicato (often abbreviated as pizz.), meaning the string should be plucked with the finger instead of being bowed.
41)20th Century Folk song Brackett Jr., Joseph
Simple Gifts
Simple Gifts is a Shaker dancing song, and is generally thought to have been composed in 1848 by Shaker Elder Joseph Brackett Jr. at the Shaker community in Alfred, Maine. It appears in many early manuscript collections of Shaker music, and one manuscript notes it was "composed by the Alfred Ministry June 28, 1848." This melody became well-known and was elevated to the level of art music when it was used by composers in music such as Aaron Copland ballet and orchestral suite Appalachian Spring. Other notable uses of the Simple Gifts melody include Sydney Carter’s 1963 Lord of the Dance music. Technique Tips: Simple Gifts was used for dancing, and the text accompanying the music emphasizes the dance nature of the piece with the words "turn, turn." It was called a quick dance by the Shakers, and should be played with a moderately fast tempo. As you play this simple dancing tune, try to maintain the momentum of the rhythm and melody with light and energetic bowing and with slurs when needed.
42)20th Century Orchestral
Folk dance - Brâul
Bartok, Bela
Brâul from Romanian
Folk Dances (1915)
Brâul, a dance from Romanian Folk Dances, was composed by Béla Bartók in 1915. Bartók was a Hungarian composer, pianist, teacher and ethnomusicologist (ethnomusicology is the study of music in its cultural context, particularly music not affiliated with European art music). In the early 1900s, Bartók became interested in Hungary's nationalistic movement to create a specifically Hungarian style of music. Bartók's initial research into what was then regarded as Hungarian folk music, found that much of this music was of recent origin by popular composers, and were artistic imitations of Hungarian peasant music. In collaboration with the musician Zoltán Kodály, Bartók began to collect and systematically study previously unknown Hungarian peasant songs. Later, Bartók expanded his research efforts to Romanian and Slovakian folk music, and he eventually collected, recorded, transcribed and analyzed folk music in areas such as North Africa (Arabic music in Biskra, Algeria), Croatia, Turkey, and Bulgaria. Bartók used folk materials in many of his compositions, and took different approaches in his treatment of folk music. At times, he featured the folk melody as a rare jewel, and composed a simple arrangement to feature and highlight the melody. At other times, he did not quote folk tunes directly, instead he imbued his compositions with folk music characteristics such as an expanded harmonic language and rhythm, with melodies that were either imitative or alluded to a folk music style. In many of his compositions, Bartók elevated folk music to the level of art music. Bartók composed Romanian Folk Dances (Román nepi táncok) in 1915 for piano, and this composition is an example of Bartók adding a harmonized accompaniment to preexisting melodies. Bartok later arranged these dances for violin and piano, and for a chamber orchestra. Technique Tips: Brâul is the second dance in Bartók's Romanian Folk Dances, and this arrangement is based on Bartók's 1915 version for piano (brâul means "sash," and refers to a cloth belt worn by dancers). This is a dance piece, and the rhythm should be played freely, with rubato in many sections throughout the piece. Rubato means "robbed." It refers to a temporary robbing of time by either slowing or speeding the tempo or rhythmic value of notes in a passage of music. Although rubato is not indicated in the score of this arrangement, if you listen to recordings of this piece by orchestras or other musicians, it is likely that you will hear the use of rubato at the end of most of the musical phrases (e.g. measures 3-4; 7-8; 15-16; 19-20; 23-24; and 31-32). Other features of this arrangement include the use of dots over or under some of the notes, indicating a spiccato bow stroke should be used (spiccato is a bouncing, off-the-string stroke).
43)Gypsy Gypsy Traditional Gypsy – The Basso The Basso is a traditional piece of Gypsy music and stringed instruments such as the violin are often used to play the melody. The term Gypsy music is often used to refer to the music of the Roma. One of the reasons why it is difficult to characterize Gypsy music, is because the Roma musicians were both influenced by and exerted an influence upon the music of the countries they were living in. Technique Tips: This arrangement is in a minor key, and should be played with virtuosity, expressiveness and passion. If you find it too difficult to use separate, short bows when you play the rapid notes in measures 34-37 and 42-45, you could try using slurs for these sections. You may want to listen to different regional versions of The Basso, e.g. the Russian version sounds slightly different from Hungarian version, and each performance varies as musicians use improvisation and ornamentation to add their own unique style to the piece. To find different interpretations of The Basso, you could conduct an Internet search for different audio and video versions and pattern your playing after the style you like best.
44)Klezmer Klezmer
Folk dance -Bulgarish
Traditional Jewish Klezmer –
Odessa Bulgarish
Odessa Bulgarish is a traditional klezmer piece. The term klezmer is a Yiddish name that can either be applied to the type of music or the musician playing the music. It is derived from two Jewish words: kle (vessel or instrument) and zemer (song), literally meaning "instrument or vessel of song." Klezmer was first used to describe the traditional instrumental music of Yiddish speaking Jews in Eastern Europe. The roots of klezmer music stem from vocal styles of cantorial chanting, wordless melodies called nigunim (sung by Hasidic Jews), and local popular songs and dances. Klezmer music also reflects folk and cultural elements from the countries klezmer musicians lived in such as Russia, the Ukraine, Romania, and Poland, including the cross-influence of gypsy music—klezmer and gypsy musicians often played together and influenced each other's styles. Klezmer music originally began as an oral tradition (passed down from one musician to another orally, instead of through music notation), and although the basic harmonic and melodic structure of a piece may remain the same, the improvisatory capabilities of each musician often result in the interpretation and sound of the music varying each time a piece is played. Since klezmer music is based on cantorial singing from synagogues, many ornamental effects are used to try to imitate the sound of the human voice. For example, krekhts (Yiddish for moan), means the instrumentalist should try to create a wailing sound; kneytsch refers to imitating the sound of a sob or catch; and tshok refers to a laugh-like sound. Additional characteristics of klezmer music include ornamentation such as trills, mordents (meaning alternate between the written note, one note above, then back to the written note), and vibrato. In klezmer music, vibrato is regarded as an ornament, and should be used selectively. When vibrato is used as a form of ornamentation in klezmer music, a fast, tight vibrato is used to ornament specific notes or sections. Technique Tips: Odessa Bulgarish is a traditional klezmer piece originating in the Ukraine. Bulgarish refers to a popular klezmer dance form, and some music scholars have asserted that thebulgarish originated in Bessarabia as the bulgareasca, and then spread as the klezmer bulgarish to the Eastern Ukraine (the name was later shortened to bulgar in America). This piece uses the klezmer mode Mi Sheberach with an augmented fourth. The bulgarish is a lively dance, and generally begins with an up-beat of three notes. Play this piece using an energetic dance tempo, and experiment with adding ornamental flourishes. You also may want to listen to different recordings or view video clips of Odessa Bulgarish and try to imitate some of the ornamentation and improvisational techniques that other musicians use in performing this lively klezmer piece.
45)Greek Greek folk music
hasapikos dance
Traditional Varys Hasapikos Varys Hasapikos is a traditional Greek folk dance with a recognizable melody. Many aspects of Greek folk music are related to classical Greek and Byzantine church music, and the geographical location of Greece contributed to its folk music being influenced by many other nations. Dance has always played a prominent role in the lives of Greeks, and dance music comprises the largest category of Greek folk music. The hasapikos dance originated in Constantinople during the Byzantine period, and originally was the dance of the Butcher's Guild of Constantinople (Constantinople, now İstanbul, Turkey, was once part of the Greek empire, and in 1453, became part of the Ottoman Empire). Since this dance was popular throughout Greece, it is known as a Panhellenic dance. Panhellenic means of or relating to all the Greek people, and when a dance is called a Panhellenic dance, it means the particular dance is so well-known throughout Greece that it is not assigned to a specific region. The hasapikos is generally performed as a male line dance, with a hand to shoulder hold. There are numerous variations of this dance. One variation of the hasapikos dance, the syrtaki, became popular when it was a featured dance in the movie Zorba the Greek. As a note of explanation, the syrtaki is a combination of two traditional dances: the hasapiko, danced in a slow tempo, and the hasaposerviko, a subgroup of the hasapiko and danced twice as fast. Technique Tips: the hasapiko featured in this arrangement is called Varys Hasapikos (varys means heavy or slow, and hasapikos comes from the Greek word hasapis and means butcher). The tempo of this arrangement is andante, meaning a moderately slow, walking speed. As you play this music, imitate the deliberate walking tempo dancers might use to perform this traditional dance.
46)Mariachi Mariachi-jarabe
and tapatío dances
Traditional El Jarabe Tapatío El Jarabe Tapatío is a popular mariachi folk dance, with a very well known melody. Mariachi music is a form of Mexican folk music which originated in western Mexico, and became popular throughout all of Mexico as a symbol of Mexican nationalism and identity. The term mariachi is used to describe the music, the dances performed to it, and the ensembles used to perform mariachi music. Mariachi music was originally considered a rural form of folk music for the "common" people such as mestizos—racially mixed persons with Spanish and Native American ancestry. Mariachi music is based on many forms of mestizo folk music such as son (meaning song; plural, sones), corrido, cancion huapango and jarabe. The musical form of jarabe is a type of son intended for dancing, and it emerged around 1800. During the time of Mexican independence from Spain and the decline of ecclesiastical influence, secular music in Mexico became more popular. Sones and jarabes became symbols of political insurgence and national identity, and jarabes gradually evolved into combinations of excerpts from sones and other popular melodies. After the Mexican Revolution in 1910, mariachi music was hailed as a symbol of nationalism, and soon became a popular form of music throughout Mexico. El Jarabe Tapatio is one of the most popular dances from Mexico. Most musicians consider El Jarabe Tapatío to be traditional Mexican folk music since it is a medley of popular songs. The name Jarabe Tapatío is derived from different sources. Although jarabe does refer to a song (son) in the musical form of a dance, the word jarabe also means "syrup" in Mexican Spanish. Some scholars have also linked the word jarabe to the Arabic word xarab or is a reference to the mixture of popular local songs used in creating this dance. The word tapatío refers to the region the tapatío dance came from (the Jalisco region), and the tapatío dance is a Mexican couples dance, in which the man dances the Spanish zapateado steps (a flamenco dance with syncopated heel and toe stamping in imitation of castanets). Jarabe Tapatío, a courtship dance, is nicknamed the Mexican hat dance, because during the dance, the man throws his hat at the feet of the woman. After she puts it on, they dance together. Technique Tips: As you play Jarabe Tapatío's famous compilation of Mexican folk songs and dances, maintain a lively dance tempo throughout the piece. This arrangement begins with a 6/8 meter with a strong triple pulse in each measure (ONE-two-three, FOUR-five-six). Beginning in measure 25, the meter changes to 2/4 with a strong two-beat pulse.
47)Chinese Chinese folk music Traditional Jasmine Flower Jasmine Flower is a popular Chinese folk song, and is frequently played by erh players (the erhu is a Chinese two-stringed bowed instrument. It is sometimes called the "Chinese violin," or "spike fiddle). There are two versions of this folk song, one from the Jiangsu province, and the other from the Zhejiang province, and their melodies and lyrics are different. Although this arrangement of Jasmine Flower is based on the Zhejiang province version, it is interesting to note that the Italian opera composer Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) used the Jiangsu version of Jasmine Flower in his operaTurandot as a unifying motif throughout the opera. The Jiangsu version was also used during the 2008 Beijing Olympics as the theme song for medal ceremonies. Technique Tips: Notice how the melody of Jasmine Flower uses only 5 notes: G,A,B,D,E. This is an example of the melody being structured around a pentatonic scale. Use smooth, flowing bows to play this delicate and lyrical melody. A few embellishments have been added to the music (grace notes), and you may want to experiment with adding more ornaments in the spirit of jia hua, meaning, "add flowers".
48)Indian Indian Carnatic music
instrumental piece
Sara Sara Sara Sara, a Carnatic instrumental piece, was composed by Tyāgarāja (1767-1847), a South Indian composer. There are two major musical systems in India: Carnatic (Karnatik), the music of southern India, and Hindustani, the music of northern India. Although the music of northern and southern India share many similarities, their music began to diverge from the thirteenth century on when northern India became subject to Islamic rule. Carnatic and Hindustani music are both based on two main elements: raga andtala. Raga is the basis for the melody, and is a specific set of notes in ascending and descending scales (melodic modes), and tala is the rhythmic pattern used in the music (metric cycles). In Carnatic music, ragas are classified into approximately 72 main scales or melakartas, and 35 principal rhythms or talas. Carnatic music generally has three layers of musical activity:
1) The melodic layer. This layer is comprised of a melodic soloist, and melodic accompanist. Although the voice is often used for the melody, other melodic instruments frequently used include the violin, vina (a large plucked lute), bansuri (a bamboo flute), nagasvaram (an oboe), and saxophone.
2) A percussion layer. The most frequently used percussion instrument is a double-headed drum called the mridangam. Other percussion instruments include the tavil (a drum), a tambourine (kanjira), mouth harp (morsang) and a clay pot (the ghatam).
3) The drone or sruti layer. The sruti layer is often played by a specialized instrument such as the tambura, a four-stringed plucked instrument with a buzzing timbre. Ornaments or gamaka are another significant element of Carnatic music. There are three broad classes of ornamentation (gamakas) in Carnatic music: slides (ascending and descending), deflections (often performed as a rolling or sliding oscillation or shake of the note), and fingered stresses (often performed as a mordent, turn or grace note).
Technique Tips: The raga (melodic mode) of Sara Sara is called kuntalavarali and the tala (meter) is Adi. The Adi meter or tala is grouped in an eight beats per measure pattern in this arrangement. Carnatic violinists and violists use a different playing position than western string players. Violinists and violists experimenting with Carnatic styles of playing may want to try this. Sit cross-legged on the floor, and let your scroll bend down and rest on the ankle of your right foot, and let the bottom part of the violin rest against your chest. Since your left hand won’t need to hold the neck of your instrument up, it will be much easier to freely move your left hand up and down the fingerboard as you finger notes and perform improvised ornamentation (gamaka). You may want to experiment with ornaments such as slides, deflections and fingered stresses as you play this piece.
49)Arabic Arabic music
longa dance,
nahawand maqam
(key it is played in)
Bey, Tanburi Cemil
Longa Nahawand Longa Nahawand is a traditional Arabic musical piece, and this particular arrangement is based on a version composed by the Ottoman composer Tanburi Cemil Bey. Arab music is often defined as music traditions in the Arabic-speaking world, and it should be noted that there are many regional differences within this broad category. Classical Arab music is monophonic, and is based on melodic modes called maqam (plural, maqamat). These melodic modes often utilize microtonality: intervals that are smaller than the half-step and whole-step used in traditional Western art music. Technique Tips: The piece Longa Nahawand uses the Nahwand maqam. This maqam is similar to the Western harmonic minor scale as it ascends, and the Western natural minor scale as it descends. Longa is a traditional form of music used in Arabic and Middle Eastern music. It is a fast dance form that originated in Turkey or Eastern Europe. Although there are many versions of Longa Nahawand (different musicians often use their improvisatory skills to create their own interpretation of Longa Nahawand), this arrangement is based on a version of Longa Nahawand composed by Tanburi Cemil Bey. As you play this arrangement of Longa Nahawand, use a lively dance tempo. You may want to try adding a few ornamental embellishments such as turns, trills, grace notes, slides and glissandos. In Arabic instrumental music, vibrato is considered an ornament, and is often played by using light pressure to rapidly play the finger just above the intended note—the upper neighboring finger. Arabic slides are short and fast, somewhat like a vocal sigh. To achieve the effect of an Arabic slide on your instrument, use the finger of the intended pitch as you slide. A few ornaments have been added to the score for you to try: slides in measures 11 and 12, and grace notes in the last two measures of the piece (measures 39-40).
50)Fiddle American Fiddle Medley Traditional Bile Them Cabbage Down,
Devil’s Dream, Shuffle
Bile Them Cabbage Down, Devil's Dream, and the Shuffle are three traditional, old-time American fiddle pieces. Fiddle music is a general term used to describe a vast number of styles ranging from ethnic music played by folk fiddlers, to folk fiddle styles of playing. See fiddle styles. This American fiddle medley is a brief arrangement ofBile Them Cabbage Down, Devil's Dream, and the Shuffle, and these pieces are commonly found in old-time American fiddle music collections. Bile Them Cabbage Down (also known as Boil them Cabbage Down), a reel, has been traced to an English country dance called Smiling Polly. One of the earliest extant copies of this tune is dated 1765. Devil's Dream, another reel, originated in Scotland, and an early version appeared in 1790 under the title: The Devil Among the Taylors. The Devil Among the Taylors or Tailors is still used as the title for this piece in the British Isles. The final section called Shuffle, is a simplified version of the double shuffle, a bowing pattern frequently used in fiddle music which produces a syncopated feel to the rhythm. Syncopation means to shift the musical accent from a strong beat to a weak one. Double stops are frequently used in the shuffle bowing pattern, and are found in this piece. If this arrangement is too difficult for you, play the simplified version of this fiddle medley (without double stops). In violin music, the term double stop simply means, play two notes on different strings at the same time. To do this, evenly place your bow on the two required strings as you pull your bow. Technique Tips: This fiddle medley begins with an excerpt from Bile Them Cabbage Down. It features the shuffle bow stroke. Another fiddle technique you may want to try adding are slides. A sample slide is notated in the last measure of the piece, and is written the way it should sound: in measure 25, slide your finger from a low C natural to a C#. For fun, you may want to add more slides. For example, in Bile Them Cabbage Down, you could add a slide on the first beat of measures 1, 2, 3 and 5, 6 and 7. During the section of the medley featuring Devil's Dream, play the fast sixteenth notes separately in the upper third of your bow. The final Shuffle section of the piece uses a simplified version of a double shuffle bowing stroke.
51)Fiddle Irish Fiddle
double jig
Traditional Irish Washerwoman Irish Washerwoman is an Irish fiddle tune. It is in the musical form of a double jig, and is a fast and lively dance. It is difficult to trace the actual origin of many British tunes, and although Irish Washerwoman is often considered to be an Irish tune, there are some who say it developed from an English country dance tune from 1688 called Country Courtship. Technique Tips: Regardless of its origins, Irish Washerwoman has a lilting, lively melody, and the rhythm plays a key role in the sound of the piece. The meter of the piece is in 6/8, and the notes are grouped into two sets of eighth notes. As you play this jig, slightly emphasize the first beat of each group of eighth notes in the following manner: ONE-two-three-FOUR-five-six. Although the piece is fast, you could try adding a few ornaments such as grace notes.
52)Ragtime Ragtime – solo with
piano accompaniment
Berlin, Irving
The Ragtime Violin
The Ragtime Violin was composed by Irving Berlin in 1911. Ragtime is one of the precursors of jazz (it later merged with jazz). This style of popular music emerged around the turn of the twentieth century, and it describes music with a ragged or syncopated rhythm. Syncopation is a term that means the music has an irregular feel to the rhythm, and this is generally achieved when the musical accent is shifted from a strong beat to a weak one, producing rhythmic patterns with unexpected accents. Technique Tips: Berlin’s 1911 version of The Ragtime Violin was scored for voice and piano. This arrangement features an instrumental melodic part with accompaniment, and the light and bouncy syncopated rhythm clearly makes it in the style of ragtime. Notice how this arrangement begins with an up-bow. This is designed to help with the flow and rhythm of the piece. After you've played through the piece, as an experiment, try starting with a down-bow, and play the first line. See if you notice any difference in being able to musically express the syncopated feel of the rhythm when you start the piece with a down-bow instead of an up-bow.
53)Ragtime/early Jazz Ragtime/early Jazz
dance music
Europe, James Reese
Ford Thompson Dabney
The Castle Walk (1913) The Castle Walk was composed in 1913 by James Reese Europe and Ford Thompson Dabney. The syncopated element of ragtime began to be used in social dancing, particularly in dances such as the One Step (a fast march with syncopated rhythm). The One Step was a ballroom dance that became popular around 1910, largely due to the efforts of Vernon and Irene Castle, a husband and wife team who were renowned in Europe and the United States for their social dancing (they owned a dance studio called The Castle House). One of the variations of the One Step was called the Castle Walk, and it was invented by the Castles. The musical composition The Castle Walk was composed by Europe and Dabney for the Castles, and the Castles used it to introduce their dance variation of the One Step, the Castle Walk. Technique Tips: The Castle Walk has the rhythmic, syncopated feel of ragtime music. The tempo marking at the beginning of this arrangement is con spirito, meaning, play with spirit in a lively, animated manner. In measures 45-47, there is a spiccato section. Spiccato is an off-the-string, controlled bouncing bow stroke which produces a crisp sound and very short notes. To perform this bow stroke, try to find a spot on your bow where you're able to produce a controlled, light bounce (try starting in the middle).
54)Blues/Jazz Blues/Jazz Handy, W. C.
St. Louis Blues
St. Louis Blues was composed by William Christopher Handy in 1914. Handy, a composer, bandleader and publisher of blues music, is often given the title "Father of the Blues." Some of the characteristics of blues music include: the syncopated rhythms of ragtime; texts that deal with the melancholy side of life; an expressive vocal and instrumental style that frequently includes slides between pitches; the call and response pattern from the work songs of slaves; and the use of blue notes and familiar patterns such as the 12-bar blues. Blue notes are produced by lowering or flatting the third, seventh, and sometimes the fifth of a major scale. A 12-bar blues pattern typically has three four-measure phrases. The first two phrases often have the same melody, with a different third phrase. In instrumental music, the third phrase often consists of improvisation by the soloist. Other commonly used blues patterns include the 8-bar, and 16-bar blues. Technique Tips: Handy's most successful composition was St. Louis Blues. One of the unique features of this piece, is Handy's use of the habanera rhythm in the bass part--the same Afro-Cuban rhythm used in Bizet's Carmen. Handy used both the twelve-bar blues pattern and the 16-bar blues pattern in creating this piece. He divided the piece into three sections: two 12-bar blues sections with the same melody, a minor 16-bar blues section utilizing the habanera rhythm, and a concluding 12-bar blues section. As you play this piece, you may want to try adding a few slides. For example, you could add slides to the "blue" notes—slide in and out of them. You also may want to interpret the rhythm freely, and let the eighth notes "swing," by interpreting the eighth notes with a triplet feel in a "swing rhythm" manner (see example).


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