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Romantic Unit 1: Early Violin Unit 2: Baroque Musical Period Unit 3: Classical Musical Period Unit 4: Romantic Musical Period Unit 5: 20th Century Musical PeriodUnit 6: Non Traditional



[1] Head, Matthew. "Style hongrois," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 12 June 2008) <>

[2] Bozarth, George and Frisch, Walter. "Johannes Brahms," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 12 June 2008) <>

[3] Remenyi, Eduard. "A Twenty-five Years Secret. Revelations That Will Stir the Musical World. Remenyi and Johannes Brahms. Who Composed Brahms' Celebrated Hungarian Dances?" New York Herald, 18 January, 1879: 10.

[4] Hungarian Dance No.5 contains a theme which exists in Hungary's folk music tradition as well. The main theme of this dance has for many years been accepted as being based on a melody by Béla Kéler, but according to Katalin Szerzö, that view is no longer accepted by musicologists. Recent studies have shown that the piece may have been composed by Ede Reményi. However, the Vivace section is derived from a folksong called "Uczu bizon megéreit a káka" ('My love is not blonde or brunette') which was collected by Ignác Bognar in 1858. Quote by Handrigan, Nancy. On the "Hungarian" in Works of Brahms: A Critical Study. MA Thesis. McMaster University, 1995: 40-41. Citing Katalin Szerzö, Johannes Brahms: Ungarische Tänze für Klavier zu vier Händen - source publication and commentaries, edited by Gábor Kováts (Budapest: Editio Musica Budapest, 1990): 9.  

[5] Of the Hungarian dances, the most famous and examined is No. 5. It is perhaps the most quintessential and iconic example of art music that follows the rubric of style hongrois. The source material for the piece has been the subject of much debate and discussion amongst scholars. In her work discussing gypsy pianist György Cziffra, Elizabeth Loparits ascribes the origin of the first section to a work called Bártfay Emlék by Béla Kéler, but also possibly written by Ede (Eduard) Reményi. Quote by Stroud, Andrew. Elements Of Style Hongrois Within Fantaisie Hongroise, Op. 65, No.1 By J.k. Mertz. Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University, 2012: 26. Citing: Loparits, Elizabeth. Hungarian Gypsy Style in the Lisztian Spirit: Georges Cziffra's Two Transcriptions of Brahms' Fifth Hungarian Dance. Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2008: 75.

[6] Tyrrell, John. "Proksch, Joseph," Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. (Accessed 11 Oct. 2008) <>

[7] Mead, David Bruce. The symphonic structure of Smetana's "Ma vlast." D.M.A. dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 1994.

[8] Ottlová, Marta, and Tyrrell, John. "Bedřich Smetana," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 18 June 2008) <>

[9] Tyrrell, John. "Bedřich Smetana," Grove Music Online–Opera. (Accessed 18 June 2008) <>

[10] Horton, John and Grinde, Nils. "Edvard (Hagerup) Grieg," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 26 June 2008) <>

[11] Bergsagel, John. "Ole (Bornemann) Bull," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 30 June 2008) <>

[12] Neal, Mary Elizabeth. Devil's instrument, national instrument: The Hardanger fiddle as metaphor of experience in the creation and negotiation of cultural identity in Norway. Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1991.

[13] Bjorndal, Arne. "The Hardanger Fiddle: The Tradition, Music Forms and Style," Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Vol. 8. 1956: 13-15.

[14] Goertzen, Chris. Fiddling for Norway: Revival and Identity. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1997: preface.

[15] Anderson, Rasmus Björn, and Moore, Aubertine Woodward. The Norway music album: a selection for home use. Boston: Oliver Ditson & Co, 1881: 77.

[16] Grinde, Nils. "Halling [parhalling]," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 30 June 2008) <>

[17] Kemp, Peter. "Strauss," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 13 June 2008) <>

[18] Lamb, Andrew. "Waltz," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 13 June 2008) <>

[19] Kemp, Peter. "About the Music," Vienna Philharmonic New Year's Concert 2008. (Accessed 14 June 2008) <>

[20] Ard, Jamee, and Fitzlyon, April. "Viardot (Michelle Ferdinande) Pauline," The Norton/Grove Dictionary of Women Composers. eds. Julie Anne Sadie and Rhian Samuel. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1995:474-478.

[21] Harris, Rachel M. The music salon of Pauline Viardot: Featuring her salon opera "Cendrillon." D.M.A., Louisiana State University: 2005.

[22] Fitzlyon, April. "Pauline (Michelle Ferdinande) Viardot," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. ed. Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, 1980. 19:694-695.

[23] Kimber, Marian Wilson. "The 'Suppression" of Fanny Mendelssohn:  Rethinking Feminist Biography," 19th Century Music, Fall 2002. Vol. 26, 2: 113-129.

[24] Todd, Larry R. "Mendelssohn(-Bartholdy), (Jacob Ludwig) Felix," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 20 August 2007) <>

[25] Döge, Klaus. "Antonín (Leopold) Dvořák," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 14 June 2008) <>

[26] Oldani, Robert William. "Aleksandr Porfir'yevich Borodin," Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy. (Accessed 16 June 2008) <>

[27] Garden, Edward. "The Five" [Moguchaya kuchka; Mighty Handful]," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 16 June 2008) <>

[28] Kauffman, George B. and Bumpass, Kathryn. "An Apparent Conflict between Art and Science:  The Case of Aleksandr Porfir'evich Borodin (1833-1887)," Leonardo, Vol. 21, No. 4. The MIT Press, 1988: 429-436.

[29] Schwarz, Boris. "Aleksandr Konstantinovich Glazunov," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 16 June 2008) <>

[30] Schwarz, Boris and Hibberd, Sarah. "Henry Vieuxtemps," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 16 June 2008) <>

[31] Fine, Marshall. "The Unfinished Vieuxtemps Sonata and its Completion," JAVS Online, Summer 2003. (Accessed 16 June 2008),

[32] Huebner, Steven. "Charles-François Gounod," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 4 June 2008) <>

[33] Tiersot, Julien and Baker, Theodore. "Charles Gounod: A Centennial Tribute," The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 3.  July, 1918:  413.

[34] Nectoux, Jean-Michel. "Gabriel (Urbain) Fauré," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 16 June 2008) <>

[35] Stanichar, Christopher Michael. Gabriel Faure's "Pelleas et Melisande." D.M.A., University of Cincinnati, 1997.

[36] Little, Meredith Ellis. "Siciliana," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 21 August 2007) <>

[37] Harris, Rachel M., 2005. 

[38] MacDonald, Hugh. "Jules (Emile Frédéric) Massenet," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 18 June 2008) <>

[39] Milnes, Rodney. "Jules (Emile Frédéric) Massenet," Grove Music Online—Opera. (Accessed 18 June 2008) <>

[40] Milnes, Rodney. "Thaïs," Grove Music Online—Opera. (Accessed 18 June 2008) <>

[41] MacDonald, Hugh. "Georges (Alexandre-César-Léopold) Bizet" Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy. (Accessed 18 June 2008) <>

[42] Barulich, Frances. "Carmen," Grove Music Online–Opera. (Accessed 18 June 2008) <>

[43] MacDonald, Hugh. "Georges (Alexandre-César-Léopold) Bizet" Grove Music Online–Opera. (Accessed 18 June 2008) <>

[44] Barulich, Frances. "Habanera," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 18 June 2008) <>

[45] Wiley, Roland John. "Pyotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 12 June 2008) <>

Fig. 4.1 Sigr. Paganini. Daniel Maclise, 1831.

Fig. 4.2 Johannes Brahms, portrait, c.1853.

Fig. 4.3 Bedrich Smetana, portrait , c.1870

Fig. 4.4 Edvard Grieg. Oil painting by Eilif Peterssen, 1891.

Fig. 4.5 Hardanger Fiddle Scroll.

Fig. 4.6 Johann Strauss II, portrait.

Fig. 4.7 Pauline Garcia-Viardot. Lithograph by Déveria.

Fig. 4.8 Felix directing a home musicale while Fanny sits watching. Illustration from a Victorian biography.

Fig. 4.9 Antonin Dvořák, portrait.

Fig. 4.10 Aleksandr Borodin, portrait, 1865.

Fig. 4.11 Aleksandr Glazunov, portrait by Ilya Yefimovich Repin, 1887.

Fig. 4.12 Henry Vieuxtemps, portrait.

Fig. 4.13 Charles-François Gounod, portrait.

Fig. 4.14 Gabriel Fauré, portrait, 1895.

Fig. 4.15 The Madeleine. Photograph of the famous Parisian church, the Madeleine.

Fig. 4.16 Jules Massenet. Photograph of the French composer, Massenet (1842-1912).

Fig. 4.17 Georges Bizet, portrait.

Fig. 4.18 Carmen. Poster by L. Leray for the first run of Carmen at the Opéra-Comique, Paris, 1875.

Fig. 4.19 Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Oil painting by Nikolai Kuznetsov, 1893.

Fig. 4.20 Konstantin Ivanov's 1892 sketch for the original set of the ballet, The Nutcracker. St. Petersburg, Russia.